The achievements of Cleopatra as the queen of Egypt

Cleopatra VII was the last queen of ancient Egypt and one of the most famous female rulers in history. She ruled from 51 to 30 BC, during a turbulent period of Roman expansion and civil war. She achieved many things as the queen of Egypt, both in her own country and in her relations with Rome. Some of these achievements were:

The achievements of Cleopatra in securing her throne

Cleopatra had to overcome internal competition and secure her throne from rival siblings and court factions. She was not the first choice of her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes, who preferred her younger brother Ptolemy XIII. After her father's death in 51 BC, she was forced to marry and co-rule with her brother, who was only ten years old. However, she soon faced a rebellion led by her brother's advisers, who tried to depose her and make him the sole ruler. Cleopatra fled to Syria and gathered an army to reclaim her throne. She also sought the support of Julius Caesar, the Roman general who had just conquered Egypt's eastern neighbor, Pontus. She met Caesar in Alexandria in 48 BC and convinced him to intervene on her behalf. She used her charm, intelligence and political skills to win his favor and become his lover. Together, they defeated Ptolemy XIII and his allies at the Battle of the Nile in 47 BC. Cleopatra then married her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, who was only eleven years old, and ruled with him as a puppet king until his death in 44 BC. She then made her son by Caesar, Caesarion, her co-ruler.

Cleopatra was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, ascending the throne in 51 BC after the death of her father Ptolemy XII Auletes. Cleopatra ruled jointly with her younger siblings Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (51–47 BC) and Ptolemy XIV (47–44 BC); and then with her son Ptolemy XV Caesarion (44–30 BC). She mostly had the political power to herself, being the dominant ruler in all three of her co-regencies, thus she was in all practical sense the last active Pharaoh of Egypt.

The achievements of Cleopatra in expanding her territory

Cleopatra had to balance her own interests as the ruler of Egypt with those of Rome as its ally and patron. Egypt was a rich and fertile country that provided Rome with grain, gold, papyrus, cotton, spices and other goods. It was also a strategic location that controlled access to the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean trade routes. Rome depended on Egypt for its economic prosperity and military security. However, Rome also posed a threat to Egypt's sovereignty and independence. Rome had intervened in Egypt's internal affairs several times before Cleopatra's reign, either to support or overthrow its kings. Rome also had a large military presence in Egypt that could easily overthrow its government if it wanted to.

Cleopatra tried to maintain a good relationship with Rome by paying tribute, sending gifts, granting privileges and honoring its gods. She also tried to influence its politics by allying herself with powerful Roman leaders such as Caesar and Antony. She hoped to secure Egypt's autonomy and stability by gaining their favor and protection.

Cleopatra also tried to expand her territory by receiving parts of Syria, Lebanon, Cyprus and Anatolia from Antony. She also claimed descent from Alexander the Great and Dionysus (the Greek god of wine). She also sent expeditions to Arabia, India, Ethiopia, and beyond.

The achievements of Cleopatra in improving her economy

Cleopatra had to improve Egypt's economy and finances after years of mismanagement and corruption by her predecessors. She inherited a large debt from her father, who had borrowed money from Rome and local bankers to pay for his lavish lifestyle and military campaigns. She also faced a famine and a plague that reduced Egypt's population

and productivity. Cleopatra implemented reforms and policies to increase Egypt's revenue and reduce its expenses.She reorganized the tax system, collected arrears, audited accounts, regulated trade, encouraged agriculture, promoted industry, and minted coins. She also invested in public works, such as temples, palaces, libraries, harbors, canals, and roads. She supported arts, sciences, and culture, and patronized scholars, poets, and artists. She also explored new markets and resources.

The achievements of Cleopatra in influencing history and culture

Cleopatra had a lasting impact on history and culture as one of the most famous and influential female rulers of all time. She came to represent, as did no other woman of antiquity, the prototype of the romantic femme fatale. She inspired art and literature for centuries, from ancient Roman writers such as Plutarch and Virgil to modern authors such as William Shakespeare and George Bernard Shaw. She has been portrayed by many actors such as Theda Bara , Claudette Colbert , Vivien Leigh , Elizabeth Taylor , Monica Bellucci , Angelina Jolie etc. She has also been depicted in paintings , sculptures , coins , stamps , films , television shows , video games etc.

Cleopatra also influenced the way Western empires would be governed. She was one of the first rulers to use propaganda , diplomacy , alliances , patronage etc. to advance her interests and goals. She was also one of the first rulers to adopt a multicultural identity that blended Egyptian and Greek elements. She was a pioneer in promoting women's rights and roles in politics and society.